Connect with us

News

A Giant Underground “Ocean” Has Been Discovered Beneath The Earth’s Surface

Published

on

Like this article? Get the latest from The Mind Unleashed in your inbox. Sign up right here.

A new study by American researchers concluded that in the mantle layer that lies between the crust and the core, there are vast reserves of water, probably three times the total volume of water of all oceans on the surface of our planet.

This “reservoir” of water, which seems to be stable over time, lies at a depth of up to 700 kilometers beneath the planet’s surface, in the intermediate zone between the upper and the lower mantle.

The researchers, led by geophysicist Steven Jacobsen of the Northwestern University and seismologist Brandon Schmandt of the University of New Mexico, estimate that water is “locked” (molecularly trapped) in a mineral called ringwoodite.

This is a relatively rare crystalline structure with a rock formed from olivine under very high pressures and temperatures.

The existence of such large quantities of ground water sheds new light on the hydrological cycle of the Earth and the origin of the seas and oceans, since they have more or less maintained their size over millions of years. Some geologists believe that water on Earth came from space or, in particular, from icy comets that fell on our planet. But the new discovery reinforces the alternative possibility that the oceans gradually emerged from the depth of the early Earth, thanks to the continuous recycling of tectonic plates. “The indications show that the Earth’s water came from inside,” said Jacobsen.

The U.S. researchers used more than 2,000 seismographs to study seismic waves that provoked over 500 earthquakes in the USA. By measuring the propagation velocity of underground seismic waves at different depths, the scientists identified the density and therefore the type of rocks that were passed by the waves.

The ‘well hidden’ water was discovered because its presence slowed down the seismic waves in the corresponding layers (a seismic wave takes longer to penetrate a hydrated rock than an anhydrous one).

The seismic observations are supplemented by laboratory experiments, from which the researchers concluded that hydrated ringwoodite at depths of around 700 km acts like a “sponge” that is gradually melting under high pressure and temperature and traps the previously absorbed water in the transition zone. “When a rock with a lot of H2O moves from the transition zone to the lower mantle it needs to get rid of the H2O somehow, so it melts a little bit. This is called dehydration melting,” said Brandon Schmandt.

Although the study concerns only the territory of the U.S., the researchers believe that something similar is happening around the world and are already planning to expand the study to other countries. The study is published in the Journal Science.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Anna LeMind is the owner and lead editor of the website Learning-mind.com, and a staff writer for The Mind Unleashed.

Original study: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6189/1265

Press release: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140612142309.htm

Typos, corrections and/or news tips? Email us at [email protected]

Corruption

Man Who Spent Decades in Prison Gets $6 Million After Cop Found to Have Faked Evidence

Published

on

Like this article? Get the latest from The Mind Unleashed in your inbox. Sign up right here.

A North Carolina man who spent decades in prison was awarded $6 million in damages by a federal jury after it was found that he was wrongfully convicted thanks to evidence fabricated by a detective.

Darryl Howard languished in prison for over 20 years on double murder and arson charges in 1995 for killing a woman and her teen daughter in 1991. Last Wednesday, a jury in Winston-Salem found that former Durham police detective Darryl Dowdy simply faked the evidence that resulted in his conviction.

In 2016, Howard’s 80-year sentence was stricken down by a Durham County judge who cited the misconduct of police and prosecutors. The $6 million award was the result of a 2017 federal civil rights lawsuit filed by Howard, reports the News & Observer.

Dowdy, 65, denied the accusations in the lawsuit. The former detective was a 36-year veteran of the Durham Police Department before he retired in 2007.

Howard and his legal team have expressed satisfaction that the jury recognized the grave injustice he faced, but are disappointed that the $6 million is a mere fraction of the $48 million in damages they requested.

Attorney Nick Brustin, who represented Howard, said that Dowdy’s defense attacked Howard for his past gunshot wounds and history of selling and using drugs.

“I think to some extent the racist defense that they have been implementing since the beginning of the ligation has in some ways succeeded,” Brustin said. “I think the verdict doesn’t value the suffering that Darryl went through.”

Howard himself noted that the heavy damage dealt by his long incarceration have completely altered his life.

“I am happy about the verdict, but I am kind of upset about the damages,” Howard told the News & Reporter.

“Just imagine, 23 years I stayed in prison,” he added.

Brustin also highlighted the systemic nature of the injustice his client suffered as a result of Dowdy’s police work.

“The kinds of misconduct are pattern misconduct,” he noted, adding that Durham police need to review other cases handled by the crooked cop.

Typos, corrections and/or news tips? Email us at [email protected]leashed.com

Continue Reading

News

Happy Holidays? Billionaire CEO Fires 900 Workers in Zoom Call

Published

on

Like this article? Get the latest from The Mind Unleashed in your inbox. Sign up right here.

The boss of an online mortgage lending company has come under fire as callous and heartless after he unceremoniously fired about 900 staff members in the run-up to the holidays – all on one single Zoom call.

Vishal Garg, the chief executive of New York-based mortgage firm Better.com, didn’t mince words in the call, telling employees:

“This isn’t news that you’re going to want to hear … If you’re on this call, you are part of the unlucky group that is being laid off. Your employment here is terminated effective immediately.”

Adding that he did “not want to do this,” he explained that “this is the second time in my career I’m doing this … The last time I did it, I cried.” 

While the 43-year-old CEO claimed that the mass sacking was a painful ordeal, he also noted that the “market has changed” and the company required streamlining to deal with the cool-off in the recent housing boom.

However, Garg neglected to mention that the company recently received $750 million from investors just last week.

According to Fortune, the chief executive also was the anonymous author of a blistering blog post to professional network Build that put his own employees on blast.

“You guys know that at least 250 of the people terminated were working an average of 2 hours a day while clocking 8 hours+ a day in the payroll system?” Garg wrote, adding that “they were stealing from you and stealing from our customers who pay the bills that pay our bills. Get educated.”

Garg also has come under fire for his poor management approach and history of abusing workers after an email he sent to employees was published by Forbes last year.

“You are TOO DAMN SLOW,” the CEO wrote. “You are a bunch of DUMB DOLPHINS… SO STOP IT. STOP IT. STOP IT RIGHT NOW. YOU ARE EMBARRASSING ME.”

Regardless of his personal frustrations with employees, social media users were stunned by news of the mass firing, calling the move “cold,” “a horrible move,” and “harsh” – especially with Christmas around the corner.

Employment law and business experts have also lambasted Garg’s actions, noting that such mass firings run counter to the law in most countries, and are not only abusive but destructive toward morale, despite being perfectly legal in the United States.

“Existing employees will look to how the company treats people as a signal to how it will treat them in the future,” Gemma Dale of the Liverpool John Moores University in the UK told the BBC.

“There are ways to do these things which, even in difficult conditions, are empathetic and decent,” she added. “There is a right way to do these things both morally and legally.”

Typos, corrections and/or news tips? Email us at [email protected]

Continue Reading

Environment

China Was Just Caught Literally Changing The Weather For Communist Party Celebration: Study

Published

on

Like this article? Get the latest from The Mind Unleashed in your inbox. Sign up right here.

In recent years, China has made a number of head-turning and downright dazzling technological advances. Now, according to a new study, the East Asian giant has successfully managed to literally change the weather.

According to a recent report from the South China Morning Post, scientists at Tsinghua University say that during the 100-year anniversary of the Communist Party of China, authorities succeeded in modifying the weather in Beijing to clear the sky and improve air quality for the masses gathered to celebrate the party’s centenary in Tiananmen Square.

The large-scale operation involved lacing the clouds above the capital with chemicals to usher in rainfall over suburban parts of Beijing before the July 1 centennial event. According to the Tsinghua researchers, eyewitnesses report rockets being launched from mountains outside the city in the run-up to the event.

The Beijing researchers claim that the artificial rain managed to reduce the level of PM2.5 air pollutants by over two-thirds, bringing air quality to “good” conditions from “moderate” levels per World Health Organization Standards.

The use of chemicals to modify weather conditions is a practice that dates back to at least the 18th century, when European states used gunfire to shoot at storms in hopes to prevent hail from harming crops.

By the turn of the 20th century, dozens of hail cannons were deployed for commercial purposes despite the unproven nature of such primitive geo-engineering methods.

Fast forward to the 2020s, and the People’s Republic of China has reportedly invested vast resources into weather modification programs that will be tested in a region spanning 5.5 million square miles by the year 2025. The impact of such geo-engineering efforts could lead to regional tensions with China’s increasingly nervous neighbors.

Meanwhile, as the potential for a new cold war with the people’s republic continues to grow, professional China skeptics have stoked fears that the ruling Communist Party could use its newfound ability to manipulate the weather for military purposes. However, it’s worth noting that the United States military has been hoping to weaponize the rain since at least 1967.

However, with arid conditions and extreme drought threatening the food security of populations across the globe, the ability to literally make rain fall may not be as frightening as some make it out to be.

Additionally, some researchers have claimed that geoengineering could play a role in mitigating the impact of rampant climate change. However, it remains far too early to know the long-term impact of lacing skies with chemicals on a widespread, regular basis.

Typos, corrections and/or news tips? Email us at [email protected]

Continue Reading

Trending

The Mind Unleashed