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Previously Unidentified “Structures” Photographed on the Outside of our Sun

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Using what scientists are describing as more sophisticated processing techniques of images, and longer exposures, new photos have been taken of our own Sun’s outer atmosphere, known as the corona. They’re painting a picture of fine details being discovered that haven’t been observed before on the Sun, with some sort of structures that have yet to be identified.

Sort of serving to promote one Parker Solar Probe, which is going to examine the Sun and report back to people what they find (hopefully with some verifiable evidence to back their observations), a study about these solar structures was recently published in The Astrophysical Journal.

Image credit: sorendreier

 

A team from the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) used what they call a COR-2 coronagraph instrument on a NASA piece of infrastructure, the Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory-A (STEREO-A) to take a look at the details of our Sun’s outer “atmosphere.”

Image credit: sciencealert

 

The tool is designed to capture photos of the Sun’s atmosphere by using what they call an “occulting disc,” that is a disc positioned in front of the lens that serves to block out the Sun itself from the photo, just to capture the gaseous, “atmospheric” corona surrounding the body of the sun. This technique is reported to be able to block out the light that would overshadow the fine details in the Sun’s outer plasma.

Image credit: ineffableisland

If you decide to believe or manage to reason through the scientific evidence that they cite, the official narrative is that the Sun’s corona is a temperature of between 1 and 3 million Kelvin, much hotter than the inner photosphere of the Sun which they estimate to be about 5,800 Kelvin.

Solar wind reportedly originates from this outer region that they’re studying, and that’s of course a constant stream of varied particles that constantly flows out in all directions from the Sun. This solar wind looks to be a prime candidate in what people should explore to theorize about the spiritual effects of the Sun, the ways we are affected by the Sun.

“In deep space, the solar wind is turbulent and gusty,” said Craig DeForest of the SwRI, a solar physicist.

“But how did it get that way? Did it leave the Sun smooth, and become turbulent as it crossed the solar system, or are the gusts telling us about the Sun itself?”

There’s a dead end in what science can explain, but recently these researchers have apparently been chipping away at that block of understanding. According to Science Alert:

“If the turbulence was occurring at the source of the solar wind – the Sun – then we should have been able to see complex structures in the corona as the cause of it, but previous observations showed no such structures.

Instead, they showed the corona as a smooth, laminar structure. Except, as it turns out, that wasn’t the case. The structures were there, but we hadn’t been able to obtain a high enough image resolution to see them.”

Perhaps spiritually interesting as well, the primary discovery of this research was that the Sun’s corona has structure, different layers and fine-tuned looking structures and things that in my opinion imply some factor of divinity. Things are so perfect in this existence, in a certain way.

Image credit: scitechdaily

 

“Using new techniques to improve image fidelity, we realised that the corona is not smooth, but structured and dynamic,” DeForest said. “Every structure that we thought we understood turns out to be made of smaller ones, and to be more dynamic than we thought.”

In order to obtain images detailed and true enough to see these things, the team did something special over the course of three days, in which their instrument captured more frequent, longer-exposure photos than it would normally, which is supposed to allow more time for light from faint sources, fine details, to be picked up by the coronagraph.

Sure, the occulting disc is effective at filtering out the Sun’s bright light they say, but there’s still plenty of noise in the raw photos. They say STEREO-A is an instrument that is in space, so they can’t modify the hardware of it. So, the team decided to refine the way they remove noise from the photos.

They developed what they call new “filtering algorithms,” and reportedly discovered that “streamers,” a kind of coronal loop which can erupt into coronal mass ejections that blast particles and plasma deep into space, are not one single structure but more part of a complex.

“There is no such thing as a single streamer,” DeForest said. “The streamers themselves are composed of myriad fine strands that, together, average to produce a brighter feature.”

 

(Image credit: Pixabay)

Ancient History

59 ancient coffins, buried for 2,600 years, discovered in incredible archaeological find in Egypt

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(TMU) – 59 well-preserved and sealed wooden coffins were recently discovered by archeologists in Egypt, and it is possible that there could be even more waiting to be discovered.

Three weeks ago researchers first announced that they found 13 coffins, and then further searches in the area revealed that there were even more. Scientists estimate that the coffins were buried over 2,500 years ago, and some of the remains were wrapped in burial cloth that showed hieroglyphic inscriptions.

The discovery was made in the burial ground of Saqqara, which is located just south of Cairo, near the 4,700-year-old pyramid of Djoser.

“We are very happy about this discovery,” said Mostafa Waziri, secretary-general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in the Egyptian government.

Tourism and Antiquities Minister Khaled al-Anani said that the coffins can be dated back to the Late Period of ancient Egypt, which is estimated to be from the sixth or seventh century BC.

“I have witnessed the opening of one of the coffins … the mummy seems as if it was mummified yesterday,” al-Anani said, according to Aljazeera.

Other artifacts have been discovered as well, including a bronze figurine depicting Nefertem, an ancient god of the lotus blossom, as well as mummified animals like snakes, birds, scarab beetles. Dozens of statues were also found in the same area that the coffins were discovered.

It is suspected that the coffins belonged to high ranking figures in ancient Egyptian society, likely from the 26th dynasty.

The coffins will be taken to the Grand Egyptian Museum on the Giza Plateau, which is currently being built. The museum is expected to open soon, but the opening has already been delayed several times. At this point, the most recent opening date for the museum is planned for 2021.

The museum will feature an entire hall dedicated to the sarcophagi that were found in the region, and this hall will reportedly hold the new discoveries.

Saqqara, where the discovery was made features numerous pyramids, including the world-famous Step pyramid of Djoser, which is sometimes called the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of mastaba tombs.

Saqqara and the surrounding areas of Abusir and Dahshur suffered damage by looters during the 2011 Egyptian protests. Storerooms were broken into, but the monuments were mostly unharmed. A series of discoveries have been made at the site in recent years. Some findings have been dated back to as far as 4,000 years ago.

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What Artists From Over 100 Years Ago Thought The Year 2000 Would Look Like

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(TMU) – Art from the past is fascinating, from the most basic rock art, to the most detailed and realistic, the bizarre, the fantastical, the surreal and the futuristic, art provides us with insight into cultures and history. Visual records of the lives, struggles, triumphs and beliefs during the evolution of human kind.

Throughout our evolution, there has always been forward thinkers, those who could envisage a very different future, such as Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), best known as an artist, he was also an architect, scientist and inventor with the vision and imagination to create, on paper, inventions such as the bicycle, the helicopter and an airplane.

Perhaps da Vinci innovative ideas inspired artists through the centuries that followed, such as those created by French Jean-Marc Cote and others in 1899, 1900, 1901 and 1910 who were asked to imagine what life would be like in the year 2020. The futuristic images they created were originally in the form of postcards or cards enclosed in cigarette boxes.

These pictures were created before the second industrial revolution and high tech machinery and flying machines. Life was much simpler, food was still grown organically and the world still had clean air, rivers and oceans. Many of the illustrations turned out to be quite accurate, such as machines for farming, robotic equipment, flying machines, underwater breathing apparatus, and sadly, weapons of war. The buildings, clothing and hairstyles seemed to remain in the previous century.

Over 100 years have passed and some of those artists may have lived to see some of their ideas become reality. Unfortunately the third revolution brought with it innovations that propelled the modern human into an easier, faster lifestyle for those who could afford it. Machines and appliances do the work, in the home and workplace. Motor cars, appliances, pre-packed food, fast food and waste, so much waste! With not a thought of the consequences. Our air and water polluted by chemicals, of rivers and oceans choked by our single use waste and not just our planet, but our health suffering under the strain.

How would we, and the artists of our world depict life on earth in 2099, 2100, 2101 and 2110?

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Ancient History

World’s largest mammoth graveyard found near Mexico City with over 200 skeletons from Ice Age

Elias Marat

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As construction workers race to complete building Mexico City’s new international airport, archaeologists have stumbled on the world’s largest graveyard of mammoths, with officials saying on Thursday that the number has risen to at least 200.

Experts believe that the site, which lies about 30 miles (50 km) north of the capital’s downtown at the Santa Lucía Air Force Base in the state of Mexico, is now the world’s largest concentration of skeletons belonging to the extinct Ice Age mammal – and a large number of them are still yet to be excavated.

The humongous creatures are believed to have died between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, when the region was the site of a number of ancient lakes that both attracted and trapped the extinct relative of modern elephants.

Other Ice Age mammals have also been found at the nearly 200 excavation sites, including about 200 mammoths, 25 camels, and five horses, archaeologists with the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) say.

https://twitter.com/Aroguden/status/1303700468242280448

Around 24,000 years ago, the geography of the region was a lush and vibrant place filled with sprawling grassland and lakes that attracted herds of mammoths.

“This place was like a paradise,” lead INAH archaeologist Ruben Manzanilla Lopez told Reuters, adding that the melting of the last glaciers happened at a time when ancient species of horses, camels, and buffalo thrived in the extremely muddy shorelines of the region.

“Then over many years the same story repeated itself: The animals ventured too far, got trapped and couldn’t get their legs out of the muck,” Manzanilla added.

Wild horses largely died out in North America at the end of the last ice age, and only returned during the Spanish invasion of the Americas, beginning with Christopher Columbus’ arrival in the West Indies in 1493 and continuing with the arrival of Hernan Cortes in Mexico in 1519.

A number of compelling finds are still being made at the site, including evidence that humans constructed tools from the bones of the massive creatures. The site lies roughly 12 miles from artificial pits or shallow mammoth traps dug by early inhabitants to trap and kill the creatures.

The flint arrows, spears, and rudimentary shallow water pits suggest that early humans may have also played a role in wiping out the lumbering beasts.

https://twitter.com/cultura_mx/status/1270031332098408450

“What caused these animals’ extinction, everywhere there is a debate, whether it was climate change or the presence of humans. I think in the end the decision will be that there was a synergy effect between climate change and human presence,” paleontologist Joaquin Arroyo Cabrales told Associated Press.

However, the pure volume of mammoth remains unearthed – comprised of extraordinarily well-preserved skeletons including their long and curling tusks – is what has come as a shock.

“We had the idea that we’d find mammoth remains, but not this many,” Manzanilla said.

The sheer glut of mammoth remains at the Santa Lucía site is such that INAH observers are now accompanying construction workers using bulldozers to make sure that work halts when bones are found.

https://twitter.com/INAHmx/status/1270370064487890944

Manzanilla is confident that when the excavations are complete, the site will likely rank higher than similar sites in the United States and Siberia as the largest deposit of mammoth skeletons.

A museum-style mammoth exhibit is also being planned for the main terminal of the new commercial airport.

The Valley of Mexico was once a verdant and lush region rich in biodiversity that teemed with interconnected lakes and countless rivers. In 1325, the Aztecs or Tenochcas began building what would later become the major metropolis of Tenochtitlan, now Mexico City, on a rock in Lake Texcoco.

However, in the 1600s the Spanish colonizers began draining the lakes in a bid to rein in annual floods and accompanying disease resulting from the region’s torrential rain seasons.

In the 20th century, local authorities continued to pave over the 45 rivers that still cut through the growing city. The process of urbanization transformed Mexico City into a dry, dusty, and smoggy region teeming with busy roads and working-class neighborhoods.

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