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Ancient History

Monument Of Native American Hero ‘Crazy Horse’ Slowly Takes Shape In South Dakota

In 1948, Korczak Ziolkowski, started work on his giant sculpture of Crazy Horse, a famous Native American hero, which still remains incomplete to this day.



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(TMU) – In the Black Hills region in South Dakota, on what was once called Thunderhead Mountain, stands the unfinished sculpture of the biggest monument in the world, which has also taken the longest to complete, and still remains unfinished.

In 1948, Korczak Ziolkowski, an American citizen of Polish descent, started work on his giant sculpture of Crazy Horse, a famous Native American hero, on the granite peak of Thunderhead Mountain.

Ziolkowski worked on the Mount Rushmore sculptures for a short time and was approached by Chief Henry Standing Bear, a Lakota elder in 1939, after he won first prize for one of his sculptures at the New York World Fair that year.

Standing Bear felt there was a need for a Native American memorial in response to Mt Rushmore.

“My fellow chiefs and I would like the white man to know that the red man has great heroes also,” he said.

Ziolkowski was not Standing Bear’s first choice for the project but his first choice, Gutzon Borglum, the sculptor of Mt Rushmore, never responded to his request.

The sculptor had less than $200 to his name when he started work in 1948 and had to contend with no roads, water or electricity.

Working alone during the first years, he used a hazardous 741-step wooden staircase to get to the top of the mountain and refused funding from the federal government, despite having very little money.

Saw cut work is a common present day image on Crazy Horse Mountain. Last week there were four saws running at once!…

Posted by Crazy Horse Memorial on Monday, May 18, 2020

His first wife divorced him because he was so obsessed with the project but in 1950 he married Ruth Ross who had come to South Dakota two years earlier specifically to volunteer on the project.

The couple had 10 children, seven of whom worked with their father on the colossal project. Ziolkowski was honest about his focus being on the sculpture, telling his wife that she would always come second to it, and his children third.

For extra income, he set up a dairy farm and sawmill while he continued his work on the gigantic sculpture.

During the years he had many broken bones, had four spinal operations and a heart bypass. Although he had estimated the project to be completed in 30 years, Ziolkowki spent his life working on the granite, later with his family.

He never even got to see the completed face of Crazy Horse, completed when he died in 1982, after 34 years of hard, often in extreme conditions.

He was buried at the foot of the monument. His wish was for his family to complete the sculpture and his advice to his wife, “Go slowly, so you do it right.’’

A recent series of saw cuts along the top of Crazy Horse’s Left Arm is complete and the granite spanning 30’ wide x 60’…

Posted by Crazy Horse Memorial on Monday, June 29, 2020

The monument has its share of controversy. Some believe it to have become more about the sculptor and his family than the First Nations it is meant to honor.

Tasunke Witko, better known as Crazy Horse, was an Oglala Lakota warrior famous for his role in the defeat of Custer and the Seventh Cavalry at the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876 and for his refusal to accept the American government’s efforts to confine his people on reservations, despite facing violence and tactical starvation.

According to Tatewin Means, who runs a community-development corporation on the Pine Ridge Reservation, Crazy Horse is revered by the Lakota today because “he never conceded to the white man.”

He was also known for his humility and some people have questioned whether he would have approved of being depicted on such a mammoth scale, at the cost of the mountain’s natural state.

Once completed, the warrior, sitting astride his horse, will point Southeast to where many First Nation people lay buried. Crazy Horse will stand 563ft (171.60m) high and be 641ft (195.38m) long, its height just short of four times that of the Statue of Liberty.

Special events like the Battle of the Little Bighorn are celebrated at the site. Since 2005, visitors have been able to watch laser shows against the mountain as well as dynamite explosions.

We imagine you’ll enjoy this image as the gaze of Crazy Horse is a source of inspiration to many. Please don’t scroll…

Posted by Crazy Horse Memorial on Monday, June 22, 2020

The project continues but is slowed down in summer when visitors and electrical storms make work difficult and although most of the sculpting is done in fall and winter the mountain’s high iron content and blizzards slow them down too.

The monument has been visited by tourists for years and now has a 40,000 square foot visitor center with a museum, restaurant, and gift shop, and plans to build a university and medical center.

Take a moment to get yourself oriented and check out this never before seen #MountainMonday view. This fascinating image…

Posted by Crazy Horse Memorial on Monday, April 20, 2020

The Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation brought in $12.5 million in admission and donations during 2018 which lead to some uneasiness about a non-First Nation family profiting from history that is not theirs.

Jim Bradford, a First Nation former state senator, told the New Yorker that the project first felt like a dedication to his people, but now seems more like a business.

“All of a sudden, one non-Indian family has become millionaires off our people,” he said.

The difference between the Crazy Horse project now and how it was originally envisioned has caused friction within the Native American community.

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Ancient History

6 Year Old Finds Fossil In Family Garden That May be 488 Million Years Old



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Children have a natural fascination with rocks, with many of us having spent some days as children standing awe-struck at our museums or science centers looking at dazzling arrays of stones, or learning about the different types that can be found out our local beaches, parks, or hiking trails.

However, none of us managed to make the sort of discovery that one young boy in the U.K. did.

Siddak Singh Jhamat, known as Sid, found a fossil in his garden that dates back millions of years.

Sid found the fossil in his backyard garden in the town of Walsall using a simple fossil-hunting kit he received as a gift, reports the BBC.

His father Vish Singh was then able to identify the fossil as a horn corral that dates back 251 to 488 million years with the help of a Facebook fossil group.

“I was just digging for worms and things like pottery and bricks and I just came across this rock which looked a bit like a horn, and thought it could be a tooth or a claw or a horn, but it was actually a piece of coral which is called horn coral,” Sid explained.

“I was really excited about what it really was.”

His father Vish added:

“We were surprised he found something so odd-shaped in the soil… he found a horn coral, and some smaller pieces next to it, then the next day he went digging again and found a congealed block of sand.

“In that there were loads of little molluscs and sea shells, and something called a crinoid, which is like a tentacle of a squid, so it’s quite a prehistoric thing.”

The father believes that the distinctive markings on the fossil make it a Rugosa coral, meaning it could be up to 488 million years old.

“The period that they existed from was between 500 and 251 million years ago, the Paleozoic Era,” Vish said.

“England at the time was part of Pangea, a landmass of continents. England was all underwater as well… that’s quite significant expanse of time.”

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Ancient History

Researchers Find 50,000-Year-Old Frozen Body of Extinct Woolly Rhino in Siberia



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Researchers in Siberia have stumbled upon the 50,000 year-old remains of a rare woolly rhinoceros that was trapped in permafrost.

The remains of the woolly rhino were excavated from the Abyisky district of the Sakha Republic. The rhino was first discovered by a local in Siberia named Alexei Savin, Business Insider reported.

Savvin stumbled upon the remarkable find walking near the Tirekhtyakh River in Yakutia, Siberia last August.

It’s worth noting that this woolly rhino was found close to the site where a previous baby woolly rhino named Sasha was discovered back in the year 2014. Woolly Rhinos were once believed to have been prevalent in Europe, Russia and northern Asia thousands upon thousands of years ago until they ended up extinct.

Paleontologist Albert Protopopov of the Academy of Sciences of the Sakha Republic unveiled that the baby woolly rhino would have been approximately three to four years old when it died presumably from drowning.

The only other woolly rhino thus far that has been discovered in these regions — Sasha — was dated to be from around 34,000 years ago. However, Protopopov suggests that the newly discovered body could be anywhere from 20,000 to 50,000 years old.

However, despite the body being there for so long according to Protopopov “among other things, part of the internal organs are preserved, which in the future will make it possible to study in more detail how the species ate and lived.”

Protopopov further added, “Earlier, not even the bone remains of individuals of this age were found, not to mention the preserved carcasses of animals. As a rule, these were either cubs or adults.”

A fellow paleontologist Valery Plotnikov from the Academy of Sciences further adds, “We have learned that woolly rhinoceroses were covered in very thick hair. Previously, we could judge this only from rock paintings discovered in France. Now, judging by the thick coat with the undercoat, we can conclude that the rhinoceroses were fully adapted to the cold climate very much from a young age.”

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Ancient History

Isaac Newton’s Secret “Burnt” Notes Included Theory That Great Pyramids Predicted Apocalypse



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Sir Isaac Newton, one of the most famous scientists of recorded history, left behind a large body of work that is still vital in our understanding of the world today. However, as with many public intellectuals, he also had plenty of work that was never shared with the public, even after his death.

Now, for the first time ever, some of these unpublished notes are being auctioned off, and these notes contain some of his most wild theories, and includes his thoughts on the occult, alchemy, and biblical apocalypse theory. Newton was known to dabble in the more esoteric realms of study, but very little written evidence remains about his specific thoughts on mystical topics.

Some of the remaining manuscript notes are currently being auctioned by Sotheby’s. The notes have been through a lot, and are obviously burned. The auctioneers claim that the notes were damaged in a fire that is believed to have been started by a candle that was accidentally toppled by Newton’s dog, Diamond.

According to the auction listing, “These notes are part of Newton’s astonishingly complex web of interlinking studies – natural philosophy, alchemy, theology – only parts of which he ever believed were appropriate for publication. It is not surprising that he did not publish on alchemy, since secrecy was a widely-held tenet of alchemical research, and Newton’s theological beliefs, if made public, would have cost him (at least) his career.”

The notes currently have a leading bid of £280,000, the equivalent of about $375,000.

In the notes, Newton speaks on some far-out topics that would surprise modern thinkers. For example, Newton’s notes include a theory that ancient Egypt’s Great Pyramid of Giza predicted the apocalypse. While it is unclear what logic he used to get to his conclusion, the theory began with his study of how the pyramids were designed according to an ancient Egyptian unit of measurement called the royal cubit.

While studying the pyramids and the cubit, Newton believed he developed an insight into sacred geometry, which somehow aligned with the apocalypse predictions in the bible.

“He was trying to find proof for his theory of gravitation, but in addition the ancient Egyptians were thought to have held the secrets of alchemy that have since been lost. Today, these seem disparate areas of study – but they didn’t seem that way to Newton in the 17th century,” Gabriel Heaton, Sotheby’s manuscript specialist, told The Guardian.

“It’s a wonderful confluence of bringing together Newton and these great objects from classical antiquity which have fascinated people for thousands of years. The papers take you remarkably quickly straight to the heart of a number of the deepest questions Newton was investigating,” Heaton added.

Interest in alchemy and mysticism was not unusual for serious scholars at the time, in fact, it was recognized as a legitimate field of scientific study.

“The idea of science being an alternative to religion is a modern set of thoughts. Newton would not have believed that his scientific work could undermine religious belief. He was not trying to disprove Christianity – this is a man who spent a long time trying to establish the likely time period for the biblical apocalypse. That’s why he was so interested in the pyramids,” Heaton said.

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