(TMU Opinion) — Despite the fact that it’s been used by indigenous people for generations, kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) was relatively unknown to a critical mass of Americans until 2016, when suddenly the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) took an aggressive interest in making the Southeast Asian plant a scheduled drug.
Led by then-Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, the FDA took up the mantle and attempted to restrict kratom via aggressive regulations. While the federal government continues to misrepresent the science behind kratom research, the DEA is not likely to recommend criminal scheduling on kratom until newly commissioned studies are completed, which will likely be several years from now.
The federal push to make kratom a Schedule 1 Drug (which would have put it in the same category as h***** and c******) was predicated on a series of reports dating back to 2009 and later that called into question whether kratom was a public health threat.
The FDA claimed that kratom was associated with 44 deaths. However, independent, peer-reviewed analysis—later corroborated by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)—showed that virtually all of these cases involved either adulterated kratom (meaning it was mixed with something else), or poly-drug use, with some of the decedents having O-desmethyltramadol in their systems.
Over a phone call, Legislative Director of the American Kratom Association (AKA), Mac Haddow, said that despite the fact that the government’s claims were roundly debunked, the FDA continues to deliberately mislead the public and the DEA by referencing these deaths.
The AKA, which has fought the DEA and FDA every step of the way, commissioned their own 8-factor analysis, which concluded that NIDA’s report was correct and that any harm reduction that may result from taking kratom off the market (which is negligible) would be completely offset by kratom users turning to the black market or opioids.
Haddow explained the three main criteria for a scheduling decision: 1) the safety hazard to the public, 2) the addiction level and 3) absence of approved medical uses.
He believes the FDA used the false claim that kratom is associated with 44 deaths in order to justify the safety hazard. With regard to the second piece of criteria, Haddow says that kratom is not an opioid. Its alkaloids affect the brain’s mu-opioid receptors in a similar way but they do not have the same pharmacologic effects and, more importantly, do not slow down the respiratory system, which is what causes so many people to die after overdosing on opioids. The FDA’s claims that kratom is an opioid is another example of their misleading and outright lying to the public.
Kratom’s addiction potential was also addressed by two NIDA studies, which concluded that while kratom can cause psychological dependence just like caffeine, there is no liability for dangerous physical addiction.
As far as criteria #3, while many people all across the world take kratom for relief from pain, anxiety and depression, “kratom is a dietary ingredient from a natural plant and is not, in its natural form, a candidate for the filing of a new drug application.” In other words, the “Controlled Substances Act does not apply to kratom in its common use as a dietary ingredient.”
Haddow says he personally knows of substantive reports attributed to Congressional staffers with close connections to the DEA which suggest that the agency will not recommend scheduling until they see the results of new comprehensive studies funded by the NIDA. The results of these studies will not be available for 2-5 years.
Haddow is confident kratom will not be criminalized before then. He told the Mind Unleashed:
“While it is possible the DEA could issue a Federal Register Notice to schedule at any time. It is my understanding they want to get the decision right and that will be informed by the results of the NIDA studies that are now funded and underway.”
Meanwhile, conspiracies abound about Big Pharma colluding with the government to have kratom banned. While there is no direct evidence for this, aside from the fact that there has been interest in patenting mitragynine alkaloids, a representative for at least one major pharmaceutical company denied lobbying against kratom.
Yet, the perception that Big Pharma is pressuring the government to eliminate an unregulated competitor that is eating into their opioid cash cows remains. Haddow believes the FDA has a “natural inclination to protect their monopoly on the drug approval process.”
The perception of corruption is continually reinforced by the revolving door between government agencies and corporate boardrooms. Just recently, former FDA head Scott Gottlieb was appointed to the Pfizer board, a move that presidential candidate Elizabeth Warren condemned as “smack[ing] of corruption.”
In the last few years, Kratom advocates have accomplished the rare feat of forcing the DEA to reexamine, suspend, and potentially abandon a highly aggressive and propagandized campaign. Haddow says this is unprecedented.
However, while he and the AKA are confident that kratom is safe from near-term federal criminalization, the war is far from over. The newest specter in the war on kratom is the possibility of the federal government attacking kratom at its source in order to cut off supply. The country of Indonesia, which supplies the majority of U.S. kratom, may soon crack down on kratom production. It’s a sudden move for a country where kratom is one of the most profitable exports, causing many to suspect the FDA is applying pressure on them to intercede.
Mac Haddow told Inverse that the Indonesian Health Ministry had admitted that the “top FDA official” was “encourag[ing] the Minister of Health to help the United States by banning the exportation of kratom.”
The FDA has denied any involvement.
Haddow told the Mind Unleashed that the Indonesian ban represents an existential threat to U.S. kratom use, since the country produces 95% of the world’s supply, saying:
“If the regulation issued by the Ministry of Health remains in place, it will have the same effect as scheduling would have here in the U.S.” and that “it will lead to more deaths in our current opioid crisis.”
Out of the frying pan and into the fire. For kratom users, the success of advocacy against the DEA and FDA may subsequently cause the federal government to try new devious methods to cut off their supply.
New Study Suggests Binge Drinking Could Damage Brain And Cause Lasting Anxiety
(TMU) – A recent study suggests that binge drinking alcohol could seriously damage the brain in ways that increase the risk of cognitive-behavioral issues like anxiety.
The study, which was conducted by researchers at the University of Porto, found that just ten days of binge drinking cause immune cells in the brain to destroy connections between neurons, which leads to anxiety and other mental health issues.
It is important to note that these were not human studies, as the test subjects were mice, but these types of experiments typically give significant insight into how different substances affect the brains of humans.
Study co-author João Relvas, told Inverse that, “[We] don’t have any reason to believe that the same mechanisms will not be operating in the human brain. Even for a short period of time, excessive drinking is likely to affect the brain, increasing the level of anxiety, a relevant feature in alcohol abuse and addiction.”
“The dangers of alcohol drinking, especially amongst the younger population, have been widely underestimated and excessive alcohol drinking is socially relatively well tolerated. Increasing public awareness and education of the young can, together with other measures, change the way society looks at alcohol intake,” Relvas added.
In the study, the researchers broke the mice off into two groups. One group was given alcohol over a 10 day time period, while the other group was not. Half of the mice were given 1.5 grams per kilogram of ethyl alcohol each day, which is the equivalent of five drinks for an adult human that weighs 165 pounds.
After 10 days, the researchers looked at the mice’s brain tissue and found that the mice who consumed alcohol had significant damage to the area of the brain that controls complex cognition and decision making, which resulted in increased anxiety.
The researchers also determined the process that caused this damage in the brain. They believe that alcohol boosts the production of an inflammatory molecule called TNF.
In further experiments, they used a drug called pomalidomide to block TNF and found that it prevented anxiety and reduced the impact that the alcohol had on the brain.
The symptoms are “ultimately driven by increased secretion of TNF by microglia, as we show that reducing its production either pharmacologically or genetically can prevent synapse loss and anxiety,” Relvas says.
Relvas also said that this drug could potentially be used to treat alcohol addiction.
“This study suggests that regulating the levels of TNF might eventually be useful when treating alcohol addiction,” he said.
However, the team does not recommend that anyone use TNF inhibitors while binge drinking, because further studies need to be done to confirm the safety and efficacy of the drugs for the purpose.
Furthermore, TNF inhibitors would not prevent any of the other damage that alcohol can do to the rest of the body.
“Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of disease with a massive impact on human life and should be treated as so,” Relvas says.
His team’s findings were published earlier this month in the journal Science Signaling.
Otherwise healthy man suddenly dies from overdose of Black Licorice candy
(TMU) – In a tragic and unpredictable turn of events, a 54-year-old man in Massachusetts died after his heart stopped beating from eating too much black licorice candy. The man’s sudden death at a McDonald’s in 2019 had doctors clueless, and became the focus of a study by senior medical researchers.
We all have our guilty pleasures and vices: it could be that we like to butter our toast on both sides, drink a pot of coffee daily, snack on moonshine cherries, or the common problem of compulsive eating as we sit in front of the TV. And no doubt, these vices do carry a health cost – but the cost of this man’s black licorice habit turned out to be far beyond anything imaginable.
According to a study in the New England Journal of Medicine, the 54-year-old man didn’t have a history of heart problems. His doctors attested that he regularly took his dog out on walks and was fit enough to meet the physical demands of his job as a construction worker.
However, his relative fitness wasn’t enough to contend with his fatal habit of consuming one to two large bags of black licorice every day for three weeks – a problem which, without any warning, had a massively detrimental impact on his health.
According to the report, the habit resulted in a precipitous drop in his potassium levels, causing his sudden heart failure at the McDonald’s. After suffering cardiac arrest and collapsing, the man never regained consciousness and died 24 hours after arriving at Massachusetts General Hospital.
“We almost didn’t believe it when we figured it out,” Dr. Jacqueline B. Henson, who treated the man while she worked at the hospital, told New York Times. “We were all shocked and surprised.”
Doctors soon discovered that the man had a generally poor diet and consumed at least a pack of cigarettes a day, according to friends and family. Yet none of those factors could explain his death. As it turned out, his death could be traced to his sudden switch from red to black licorice three weeks prior to his death.
Officials of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have announced that consuming two ounces of black licorice for 12 days can result in an irregular heart rhythm or arrhythmia for people aged 40 and over, as well as high blood pressure, edema (swelling), lethargy, and congestive heart failure.
Medical practitioners are generally taught that black licorice contains glycyrrhizic acid, a common plant extract used to sweeten candies and other foods that can dangerously reduce potassium levels when consumed in high doses.
The ingredient is also common in other foods and drinks that contain licorice root, such as jelly beans, licorice tea, certain types of chewing gum, popular anise liquors like ouzo, raki, arak, and anisette, and a number of Belgian beers. Sweet-flavored chewing tobaccos also commonly contain licorice.
However, overconsuming these products cause our potassium levels to plunge, throwing off the balance of sodium and potassium that’s necessary for a healthy functioning heart. When our potassium levels drop, sodium levels skyrocket – resulting in arrhythmia and boosting our blood pressure.
The Massachusetts case, however, is an extreme one and far from the norm, noted Dr. Henson, who said that the occasional licorice treat shouldn’t be confused with poison.
“It’s fine taken in sort of small amounts, infrequently,” Henson said. “But when taken on a regular basis, it can lead to these issues.”
Ann Arbor becomes latest city to decriminalize “magic” mushrooms and other natural psychedelics
(TMU) – The city of Ann Arbor, Michigan, has effectively decriminalized psilocybin or “magic” mushrooms along with other natural psychedelics in the latest sign that public opinion across the U.S. is continuing to turn against prohibitionist policies.
On Monday, the Ann Arbor City Council unanimously voted in favor of a resolution that would make it the city’s lowest-ranked law enforcement priority to the investigate or arrest anyone planting, cultivating, purchasing, transporting, distributing, using or possessing entheogenic plants or plant compounds.
The resolution applies to all psychedelics derived from plants and fungi, including psilocybin mushrooms, ayahuasca, ibogaine, mescaline, peyote and other substances with hallucinogenic properties deemed illegal under state and federal law.
The council also requires the Washtenaw County Prosecutor’s Office to halt the prosecution of those involved in the use of entheogenic plants and plant compounds.
Ann Arbor now joins a growing list of cities including Denver, Colorado, and the California cities of Santa Cruz and Oakland that have decriminalized all entheogenic plants. Other cities including Chicago and Austin are considering similar measures. A ballot measure that would legalize the use of psilocybin in therapeutic settings will also be voted on in the state of Oregon this November.
The move to de-prioritize law enforcement around psychedelics was spearheaded by the efforts of local grassroots advocacy group Decriminalize Nature Ann Arbor, or DNA2.
At the beginning of the year, councilmembers were skeptical about any move to decriminalize psychedelics. Since then, they’ve found themselves convinced by evidence of the therapeutic and spiritual benefits of psychedelics, including for mental health treatment and treating addiction, reports MLive.
Councilmember Zachary Ackerman cited the opening of a $17 million psychedelic and consciousness research center by Johns Hopkins Medicine as proof of “the tremendous potential of these future medicines.” The Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore is currently conducting clinical trials to find out whether the drug is suitable as a prescription drug for the U.S. market.
Councilmember Jack Eaton described the council’s unanimous backing for the decriminalization resolution as carrying on the city’s legacy of backing the local decriminalization of m******** during the 1970s, when the plant was still illegal under state and federal law.
The resolution doesn’t allow for the commission of crimes or any significant violation of state or federal law, and any use of entheogenic substances that pose a threat to public health and safety could require intervention by law enforcement bodies.
In the resolution, entheogenic plants are defined as the full spectrum of plants and fungi that contain indole amines, tryptamines and phenethylamines “that can benefit psychological and physical wellness, support and enhance religious and spiritual practices, and can reestablish human’s inalienable and direct relationship to nature.”
The resolution also states that psychedelic substances can be used to address substance abuse problems, addiction, recidivism, trauma, post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, grief, cluster headaches and other debilitating conditions.
“The use of entheogenic plants, which can catalyze profound experiences of personal and spiritual growth, have been shown by scientific and clinical studies and traditional practices to be beneficial to the health and well-being of individuals and communities in addressing these conditions,” it states.
Psilocybin mushrooms are currently considered a Schedule 1 narcotic by the Drug Enforcement Agency.
However, psilocybin – the main chemical component of the mushrooms – was designated as a “breakthrough therapy” by the FDA in 2019 due to the positive results of psilocybin in treating depression, anxiety, addiction, and other mental health problems.
Studies have also shown how a microdose of psilocybin—far from the level needed for a full-blown trip—actually increases the creativity and empathy of participants.
Other researchers have also found that psilocybin has provided effective help to patients struggling to quit other addictive substances such as cigarettes.
The newfound recognition of psilocybin therapy as a valid treatment has eroded old stereotypes of psilocybin as some intoxicating and hallucination-inducing party drug that drives its users insane – a reputation that largely grew out of the hippie counterculture of the 1960s when they were widely known as “psychedelic” or “magic” mushrooms.
The resolution further notes that entheogenic plants have been the basis of spiritual practices by human cultures for thousands of years, yet those who seek them for the sake of improving their health and wellbeing must risk arrest and prosecution to obtain them.
“Decriminalization of naturally occurring medicines is necessary for progress,” councilmember Jeff Hayner said in a press release from DNA2 last week, reports Detroit Metro Times. “We can no longer turn a blind eye towards the wisdom of indigenous peoples, and the bounty the earth provides. I have been moved by the testimonies of those who have found profound relief from the use of entheogenic plants.”
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